Malignant Transformation

Carcinogenesis: transformation into cancer
Type

Agent

Comment

mutagenic carcinogens

tobacco smoke

asbestos

cancers of head and neck, lung, bladder

malignant mesothelioma

non-mutagenic carcinogens

Estrogens

Alcohol

increase rate of mitosis, thus increasing the opportunity for malignant mutations
radiation ionizing radiation free radicals, DNA damage
virus

DNA viruses

RNA retroviruses

HPV, adenovirus

HIV, HTLV

genetic predisposition Philadelphia chromosome chromosomal translocation

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