Oncogenes Proto-oncogenes

Proto-oncogenes normally function in controlling cellular growth. Proto-oncogenes are typically associated with cellular signal transduction and control of gene transcription. Oncogenes are tumor-causing, malignantly transformed (mutated) proto-oncogenes.

Growth Factor genes

Proto-oncogene/Oncogene type

Normal/Abnormal function

c-SisPDGF β-chain
v-sis gene (first oncogene with identified homology to known cellular gene) oncogene in simian sarcoma virus
int-2 gene (integration of mouse mammary tumor virus) FGF-related growth factor
KGF (Hst) gene

FGF-related growth factor

oncogene in gastric carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases ( RTKs)

c-Fms (“fims”) gene

colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor

retroviral oncogene

Flg (“flag”) gene (homology to the Fms gene, so 'fms-like gene') FGF receptor
Neu (“new”) gene – conversion of proto-oncogenic to oncogenic Neu requires only a single amino acid change in the transmembrane domain EGF receptor-related gene in an ethylnitrosourea-induced neuroblastoma
Trk (“track”) genes – TrkA, TrkB and TrkC

NGF receptor-like proteins

oncogene in pancreatic cancer

Met gene hepatocyte growth factor(HGF)/scatter factor (SF) receptor
c-Kit gene mast cell growth factor receptor

Membrane Associated Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs)

v-src gene first identified oncogene
c-Src gene archetypal protein tyrosine kinase
Lck gene T cell tumor line (LYSTRA cell kinase), associated with the CD4 and CD8 antigens of T cells

G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs)

Mas gene

angiotensin receptor

oncogene in a mammary carcinoma

Membrane Associated G-Proteins

three different homologs of the c-Ras gene most frequent oncogene in colorectal carcinomas

Serine/Threonine Kinases

Raf gene signaling pathway of most RTKs, very likely threonine phosphorylation of MAP kinase following receptor activation

Nuclear DNA-Binding/Transcription Factors

Myc gene (disruption by retroviral integration and transduction and chromosomal rearrangements) avian myelocytomatosis virus, human hematopoietic neoplasias
Fos gene feline osteosarcoma virus, interacts with a second proto-oncogenic protein, Jun to form a transcriptional regulatory complex (AP1)
p53 gene (single most identified mutant protein in human tumors – originally identified as a major nuclear antigen in transformed cells) Mutant forms of the p53 protein interfere with cell growth suppressor effects of wild-type p53 indicating that the p53 gene product is actually a tumor suppressor.
adapted from here.

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